Arquivo da tag: inglês

“The Commodification of Information Commons: The Case of Cloud Computing” [artigo em periódico]

De FILIPPI, Primavera & VIEIRA, Miguel Said. “The Commodification of Information Commons: The Case of Cloud Computing”. Columbia Science and Technology Law Review, v. 16, p. 3, 2014. Disponível em: <http://ssrn.com/abstract=2488127>.

Artigo publicado na Columbia Science and Technology Law Review, e que aprofunda ideias apresentadas em uma comunicação na 1st Global Thematic IASC Conference on the Knowledge Commons, e num painel em homenagem a Elinor Ostrom na 17th Annual Conference of The International Society for New Institutional Economics.

Abstract

Internet and digital technologies allowed for the emergence of new modes of production involving cooperation and collaboration amongst peers (peer-production). In contrast with traditional models of production oriented towards the maximization of profits, these alternative modes of production are, more often than not, oriented towards the maximization of the common good. To ensure that content will always remain available to the public, the output of production is often released under a specific regime that prevents anyone from subsequently turning it into a commodity (the regime of information commons).

While this might reduce the likelihood of commodification, information commons can nonetheless be exploited by the market economy. Indeed, since they have been made available for use by anyone, large online service providers can indirectly benefit from the commons by capturing the value derived from it. While this is not a problem per se, problems arise when the exploitation of the commons by one agent is likely to preclude others from doing the same — often as a result of commodification. This is especially true in the context of cloud computing, where the content holder has become as powerful as, if not more powerful than, the copyright owner. Nowadays, regardless of their legal status, information commons are increasingly controlled by large corporations who can precisely define the manner in which they can be used or accessed.

Digital communities need to be aware of these risks. This Article proposes a theoretical and normative exploration of these issues based on an analysis of recent trends in cloud computing. It argues that, in order to reduce the likelihood of commodification but still benefit from the advantages offered by cloud computing, digital communities should rely on decentralized platforms based on peer-to-peer architectures, thereby escaping from the centralized control of large service providers while nonetheless preserving the autonomy of the commons they produce.

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Arquivado em Artigos, Artigos em periódicos

“Intellectual Commons, Commodification and New Business Models” (Bens comuns intelectuais, mercantilização e novos modelos de negócio) [artigo em evento]

VIEIRA, Miguel Said. “Intellectual Commons, Commodification and New Business Models“. Arbeitsberichte des Fachbereichs Informatik, n. 7/2012 (Virtual Goods + ODRL 2012 Proceedings). Koblenz, 2012. Disponível em: <http://ssrn.com/abstract=2488635>.

Em inglês. Breve artigo (resumo de minha pesquisa de doutorado) apresentado no evento Virtual Goods 2012 (10th International Workshop for Technical, Economic and Legal Aspects of Business Models for Virtual Goods), em Namur (Bélgica). Publicado nos anais do evento, em Arbeitsberichte aus dem Fachbereich Informatik, n. 7 (2012). Clique aqui para fontes em LaTeX.

Vejam também a apresentação (clique aqui para formato ODF).

Abstract

This research project analyzes the possible relationships between immaterial commons (i. e., the practices of sharing around intellectual or cultural goods) and commodification (the process of turning something into a commodity: a private good produced to satisfy market needs); in particular, it poses the question of whether commodification can arise in or from within a commons, and how do so-called “open business models” affect that possibility.

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Arquivado em Artigos, Artigos em eventos, Artigos em periódicos

“What kind of a commons is free software?” (Que tipo de bem comum é o software livre?) [artigo em evento]

VIEIRA, Miguel Said. “What kind of a commons is free software?“. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 739 (Proceedings of the 6th Open Knowledge Conference). Berlim: 2011. Disponível em: <http://ssrn.com/abstract=2619956>.

Em inglês. Trabalho apresentado na OKCon 2011 (Open Knowledge Conference, o evento anual da Open Knowledge Foundation), em Berlim. Vejam também a apresentação (clique aqui para formato ODF). O artigo em PDF pode ainda ser baixado dos anais do evento.

Como curiosidade, foi o primeiro trabalho que editei usando LaTeX (isso ocorrera também nos dois artigos que escrevi com Imre Simon, mas nesses casos foi ele quem passou nosso texto final pra LaTeX), usando o que aprendi no ótimo curso oferecido pelo pessoal do PoliGNU. O sistema tem uma curva de aprendizado significativa, mas ajuda a redigir textos bem organizados, e os resultados gráficos são incríveis: texto bem diagramado, com formatação padronizada e ótima legibilidade (mesmo com as configurações muito próximas do default). Os arquivos fonte do LaTeX desse artigo estão aqui.

Outra curiosidade que o texto pode suscitar é o uso da noção de definição por intensão (que se grafa assim mesmo, com esse “s” meio suspeito). É um conceito da lógica, oposto ao de definição por extensão, e que percebi que se aplica muito bem à discussão sobre fronteiras de bens comuns intelectuais.

Abstract

This paper analyzes free software under the light of commons theories, and tries to answer whether it is a managed or open access commons. It briefly presents commons studies and its main concepts, as well as the discussion on immaterial commons, arguing that goods’ intrinsic characteristics should not be viewed as absolute, but rather contextualized in social struggles. Then, it proposes a two-tier structure for analyzing free software as a commons, considering its dual nature as
source and machine code. The two connected layers of the proposal – use and development – are characterized according to commons theory categories; Android and software forking are explored as examples. It concludes that the first layer resembles an open access commons, but with intensional boundaries, and that the second one resembles multiple managed commons. This disparity is associated with the category of nested enterprises and with the layers’ relations to appropriation and production.

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Arquivado em Artigos, Artigos em eventos